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Front-End Development and Back-End Development Languages.

Front End

The front-end is built using a combination of technologies such as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), JavaScript and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).

Back End

The back-end, also called the server side, consists of the server which provides data on request, the application which channels it, and the database which organizes the information

Front End Development

The part of a website that the user interacts with directly is called as front end. It is also referred to as the ‘client side’ of the application. It includes everything that users experience directly: text colors and styles, images, graphs and tables, buttons, colors, and navigation menu. HTML, CSS, and JavaScript are the languages used for Front End development. The structure, design, behavior, and content of everything seen on browser screens when websites, web applications, or mobile apps are opened up, is implemented by front End developers. Responsiveness and performance are two main objectives of the Front End. The developer must ensure that the site is responsive i.e. it appears correctly on devices of all sizes no part of the website should behave abnormally irrespective of the size of the screen.

The Front End Languages are described below which are used to build front end portion of the website:

  1. HTML: It is used to design the front-end portion of the web pages using markup language. HTML is the combination of the Hypertext and markup language. The hypertext defines the link between the pages and markup is used to define the text documentation within the tag which defines the structure of the page

  2. CSS: Cascading Style Sheets fondly referred to as CSS is a simply designed language intended to simplify the process of making web pages presentable. CSS allows you to apply styles to web pages. More importantly, CSS enables you to do this independent of the HTML that makes up each web page.

  3. JavaScript: JavaScript is a famous scripting language used to create magic on the sites to make the site interactive for the user. It is used to enhancing the functionality of a website to running cool games and web-based software.

Front End Frameworks and Libraries:

  • AngularJS: AngularJs is a JavaScript open-source front-end framework that is mainly used to develop single-page web applications(SPAs). It is a continuously growing and expanding framework which provides better ways for developing web applications. It changes the static HTML to dynamic HTML. It is an open-source project which can be free. It extends HTML attributes with Directives, and data is bound with HTML.

  • React.js: React is a declarative, efficient, and flexible JavaScript library for building user interfaces. ReactJS is an open-source, component-based front-end library responsible only for the view layer of the application. It is maintained by Facebook. Bootstrap: Bootstrap is a free and open-source tool collection for creating responsive websites and web applications. It is the most popular HTML, CSS, and JavaScript framework for developing responsive, mobile-first websites.

  • jQuery: jQuery is an open-source JavaScript library that simplifies the interactions between an HTML/CSS document, or more precisely the Document Object Model (DOM), and JavaScript. Elaborating the terms, jQuery simplifies HTML document traversing and manipulation, browser event handling, DOM animations, Ajax interactions, and cross-browser JavaScript development.

  • SASS: It is the most reliable, mature, and robust CSS extension language. It is used to extend the functionality of an existing CSS of a site including everything from variables, inheritance, and nesting with ease.

  • Flutter: Flutter is an open-source UI development SDK managed by google. It is powered by Dart programming language. It builds performant and good-looking natively compiled applications for mobile (Ios, Android), web, and desktop from a single code base. The key selling point of flutter is flat development is made easier, expressive, and flexible UI and native performance. In march 2021 flutter announce Flutter 2 which upgrades flutter to build release applications for the web, and the desktop is in beta state.

  • Some other libraries and frameworks are Semantic-UI, Foundation, Materialize, Backbone.js, Ember.js, etc.

Back End Development

Backend is the server-side of the website. It stores and arranges data, and also makes sure everything on the client-side of the website works fine. It is the part of the website that you cannot see and interact with. It is the portion of software that does not come in direct contact with the users. The parts and characteristics developed by backend designers are indirectly accessed by users through a front-end application. Activities, like writing APIs, creating libraries, and working with system components without user interfaces or even systems of scientific programming, are also included in the backend.

The back end portion is built by using some languages which are discussed below:

  • PHP: PHP is a server-side scripting language designed specifically for web development. Since PHP code executed on the server-side, so it is called a server-side scripting language.

  • C++: It is a general-purpose programming language and widely used nowadays for competitive programming. It is also used as a backend language.

  • Java: Java is one of the most popular and widely used programming languages and platforms. It is highly scalable. Java components are easily available.

  • Python: Python is a programming language that lets you work quickly and integrate systems more efficiently.

  • JavaScript: JavaScript can be used as both (front end and back end) programming languages.

  • Node.js: Node.js is an open-source and cross-platform runtime environment for executing JavaScript code outside a browser. You need to remember that NodeJS is not a framework, and it’s not a programming language. Most people are confused and understand it’s a framework or a programming language. We often use Node.js for building back-end services like APIs like Web App or Mobile App. It’s used in production by large companies such as Paypal, Uber, Netflix, Wallmart, and so on.

Back End Frameworks:

  1. Express: Express.js, also known as Express, is a Node.js web application framework and open-source software available under the MIT license. It is used for building APIs and web applications and is considered as a standard Node.js server framework. Express is a MEAN stack back-end component along with the AngularJS frontend framework and NoSQL databases. Express is viewed as one of the best web application development frameworks.

  2. Django: Django is a leading open-source backend framework based on the Python programming language. It follows the model view controller (MVC) pattern. Django is suitable for the development of sophisticated and feature-rich database-driven websites. Django is considered as one of the best backend web development frameworks.

  3. Rails: Ruby on Rails, also known as Rails, is a Ruby-based server-side web application framework with an MIT License. Rails is an MVC framework offering database default structures, web pages, and web services. Ruby on Rails is one of the best frameworks for web development. Ruby on Rails promotes the use of web standards like XML or JSON for data transfers and CSS, JavaScript, and HTML for interfacing. Rails prioritizes the use of software engineering patterns such as active record pattern, convention over configuration (CoC), and don’t repeat yourself (DRY).

  4. Laravel: Lavarel is an open-source PHP web framework for developing Symfony-based web applications that follow the model–view–controller (MVC) architecture. It offers a modular packaging system equipped with a dedicated dependency manager. Laravel is rated as one of the best web frameworks.

  5. CakePHP: CakePHP is a widely-used open-source web framework. It is written in PHP and follows the MVC architecture. It has been made available under an MIT license and is based on the Ruby on Rails concepts. CakePHP utilizes popular software design and engineering concepts, including active record, front controller, model-view-controller, convention over configuration, and data mapping.

  6. Flask: Flask is a Python-based micro web framework that does not require specific libraries and tools. This backend does not have form validation, a database abstraction layer, or components that require functions from external sources. Flask provides support for extensions that can add features in a manner that seems like they are implemented within Flask.

  7. ASP.NET core: ASP.NET Core is an open-source and free framework that follows in the footsteps of ASP.NET, a widely-used backend created in partnership with the .NET Foundation. ASP.NET Core is a modular framework that can run across the entirety of the .NET Framework across on Windows and .NET Core.

  8. Spring: Spring Framework is an open-source application framework and the Java platform’s inversion of control container. Java applications can utilize the core features of this framework. Users can also use many extensions for creating web apps based on the Java EE platform.

  9. Koa: Koa is a web framework designed by the Express team to be a more expressive, sturdier, and more robust foundation for APIs and web applications. Using async functions enables Koa users to abandon callbacks and enhance error-handling. Koa is free from any core Middleware and offers users a collection of speedy server writing methods.

  10. Phoenix: Phoenix is a development framework written in the Elixir programming language. It utilizes an MVC pattern and is based on Plug library and the Cowboy Erlang framework. Phoenix was developed to facilitate the creation of scalable and high-performance applications. It offers the request/response functionality from the Cowboy server, along with the real-time external client communication through Websockets and agnostic channels.

Back End Scripting Language:

  1. PHP: Majority of websites on the world wide web use PHP as the backend. The language will top any list of popular programming languages. The language is maintained by a very active open source community and can seamlessly work cross-platform across UNIX, Mac and Windows.

  2. Python: The open source language has emerged as one of the most popular and important languages for developers. Python’s growing popularity has made it an essential programming language to learn these days. It is an apt programming language to learn even for non-programmers because of its easy syntax.

  3. Ruby: While Ruby on Rails framework has a slightly long learning curve, it is still one of the most robust programming languages. Ruby has an active community of supporting developers. The good documentation and impressive open source dependencies make it one of the best programming languages for backend development. Ruby’s code is simple and expansive, which makes it easy to use even for complex development projects.

  4. Java: Java has had a good reputation as a multipurpose programming language. Java is used for desktop, web, and android development. Even if you love new technologies, languages, and frameworks, you cannot ignore the importance of Java. There are numerous frameworks available today that are based on Java. Spring framework is the most versatile framework used popularity by developers.

  5. Rust: The C-like language scores high points when it comes developing strong backend framework. The programming language is relatively new compared to C, but it is faster and safer in comparison to C/C++.

  6. And more like C++, Perl, Go, Python, C++, C# etc.,

Front End vs Back End

Front End Back End

The frontend is the part of the website users can see and interact with such as the graphical user interface (GUI) and the command line including the design, navigating menus, texts, images, videos, etc.

Backend, on the contrary, is the part of the website users cannot see and interact with.

The visual aspects of the website that can be seen and experienced by users are frontend.

Everything that happens in the background can be attributed to the backend.

Languages used for the front end are HTML, CSS, JavaScript etc.

Languages used for backend include Java, Ruby, Python, .Net.

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