The back-end, also called the server side, consists of the server which provides data on request, the application which channels it, and the database which organizes the information
Front End Development
The Front End Languages are described below which are used to build front end portion of the website:
HTML: It is used to design the front-end portion of the web pages using markup language. HTML is the combination of the Hypertext and markup language. The hypertext defines the link between the pages and markup is used to define the text documentation within the tag which defines the structure of the page
CSS: Cascading Style Sheets fondly referred to as CSS is a simply designed language intended to simplify the process of making web pages presentable. CSS allows you to apply styles to web pages. More importantly, CSS enables you to do this independent of the HTML that makes up each web page.
Front End Frameworks and Libraries:
SASS: It is the most reliable, mature, and robust CSS extension language. It is used to extend the functionality of an existing CSS of a site including everything from variables, inheritance, and nesting with ease.
Flutter: Flutter is an open-source UI development SDK managed by google. It is powered by Dart programming language. It builds performant and good-looking natively compiled applications for mobile (Ios, Android), web, and desktop from a single code base. The key selling point of flutter is flat development is made easier, expressive, and flexible UI and native performance. In march 2021 flutter announce Flutter 2 which upgrades flutter to build release applications for the web, and the desktop is in beta state.
Some other libraries and frameworks are Semantic-UI, Foundation, Materialize, Backbone.js, Ember.js, etc.
Back End Development
Backend is the server-side of the website. It stores and arranges data, and also makes sure everything on the client-side of the website works fine. It is the part of the website that you cannot see and interact with. It is the portion of software that does not come in direct contact with the users. The parts and characteristics developed by backend designers are indirectly accessed by users through a front-end application. Activities, like writing APIs, creating libraries, and working with system components without user interfaces or even systems of scientific programming, are also included in the backend.
The back end portion is built by using some languages which are discussed below:
PHP: PHP is a server-side scripting language designed specifically for web development. Since PHP code executed on the server-side, so it is called a server-side scripting language.
C++: It is a general-purpose programming language and widely used nowadays for competitive programming. It is also used as a backend language.
Java: Java is one of the most popular and widely used programming languages and platforms. It is highly scalable. Java components are easily available.
Python: Python is a programming language that lets you work quickly and integrate systems more efficiently.
Back End Frameworks:
Express: Express.js, also known as Express, is a Node.js web application framework and open-source software available under the MIT license. It is used for building APIs and web applications and is considered as a standard Node.js server framework. Express is a MEAN stack back-end component along with the AngularJS frontend framework and NoSQL databases. Express is viewed as one of the best web application development frameworks.
Django: Django is a leading open-source backend framework based on the Python programming language. It follows the model view controller (MVC) pattern. Django is suitable for the development of sophisticated and feature-rich database-driven websites. Django is considered as one of the best backend web development frameworks.
Laravel: Lavarel is an open-source PHP web framework for developing Symfony-based web applications that follow the model–view–controller (MVC) architecture. It offers a modular packaging system equipped with a dedicated dependency manager. Laravel is rated as one of the best web frameworks.
CakePHP: CakePHP is a widely-used open-source web framework. It is written in PHP and follows the MVC architecture. It has been made available under an MIT license and is based on the Ruby on Rails concepts. CakePHP utilizes popular software design and engineering concepts, including active record, front controller, model-view-controller, convention over configuration, and data mapping.
Flask: Flask is a Python-based micro web framework that does not require specific libraries and tools. This backend does not have form validation, a database abstraction layer, or components that require functions from external sources. Flask provides support for extensions that can add features in a manner that seems like they are implemented within Flask.
ASP.NET core: ASP.NET Core is an open-source and free framework that follows in the footsteps of ASP.NET, a widely-used backend created in partnership with the .NET Foundation. ASP.NET Core is a modular framework that can run across the entirety of the .NET Framework across on Windows and .NET Core.
Spring: Spring Framework is an open-source application framework and the Java platform’s inversion of control container. Java applications can utilize the core features of this framework. Users can also use many extensions for creating web apps based on the Java EE platform.
Koa: Koa is a web framework designed by the Express team to be a more expressive, sturdier, and more robust foundation for APIs and web applications. Using async functions enables Koa users to abandon callbacks and enhance error-handling. Koa is free from any core Middleware and offers users a collection of speedy server writing methods.
Phoenix: Phoenix is a development framework written in the Elixir programming language. It utilizes an MVC pattern and is based on Plug library and the Cowboy Erlang framework. Phoenix was developed to facilitate the creation of scalable and high-performance applications. It offers the request/response functionality from the Cowboy server, along with the real-time external client communication through Websockets and agnostic channels.
Back End Scripting Language:
PHP: Majority of websites on the world wide web use PHP as the backend. The language will top any list of popular programming languages. The language is maintained by a very active open source community and can seamlessly work cross-platform across UNIX, Mac and Windows.
Python: The open source language has emerged as one of the most popular and important languages for developers. Python’s growing popularity has made it an essential programming language to learn these days. It is an apt programming language to learn even for non-programmers because of its easy syntax.
Ruby: While Ruby on Rails framework has a slightly long learning curve, it is still one of the most robust programming languages. Ruby has an active community of supporting developers. The good documentation and impressive open source dependencies make it one of the best programming languages for backend development. Ruby’s code is simple and expansive, which makes it easy to use even for complex development projects.
Java: Java has had a good reputation as a multipurpose programming language. Java is used for desktop, web, and android development. Even if you love new technologies, languages, and frameworks, you cannot ignore the importance of Java. There are numerous frameworks available today that are based on Java. Spring framework is the most versatile framework used popularity by developers.
Rust: The C-like language scores high points when it comes developing strong backend framework. The programming language is relatively new compared to C, but it is faster and safer in comparison to C/C++.
And more like C++, Perl, Go, Python, C++, C# etc.,
Front End vs Back End
Front End Back End
The frontend is the part of the website users can see and interact with such as the graphical user interface (GUI) and the command line including the design, navigating menus, texts, images, videos, etc.
Backend, on the contrary, is the part of the website users cannot see and interact with.
The visual aspects of the website that can be seen and experienced by users are frontend.
Everything that happens in the background can be attributed to the backend.
Languages used for backend include Java, Ruby, Python, .Net.
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