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What is NVL in SQL?

When you work with databases, you'll frequently come across a common and tricky issue - null values. Null values stand for missing or unknown data, and dealing with them properly is crucial to get accurate and meaningful results from your SQL queries. In this article, we'll explore what is NVL in SQL.

NVL is a powerful SQL function that helps you handle null values effectively. We'll cover its syntax, the advantages it offers, and its limitations. Additionally, we'll provide a practical example to demonstrate how you can use NVL in SQL to tackle null values and improve your data handling skills.

Table of content:

What is NVL in SQL?

In SQL, NVL (Null Value) is a function that is used to replace null values with a specified default value. It is particularly useful when dealing with expressions or columns that might contain null values, and you want to handle them in a specific way.


The syntax of the NVL function varies depending on the SQL database system being used. In most database systems like Oracle, the syntax is as follows:

NVL(expression, default_value)
  • expression: This is the value or column that you want to check for null. If this expression evaluates to null, the NVL function will replace it with the default value.

  • default_value: This is the value that will be returned if the expression is null.

Example: NVL in SQL

Let's create a table called "employees" with the following columns:

  1. employee_id (Primary Key) - An integer value representing the unique ID of the employee.

  2. employee_name - A string representing the name of the employee.

  3. salary - An integer representing the salary of the employee. This column may contain null values.

Here's the SQL code to create the table and insert some sample data:

CREATE TABLE employees (     
    employee_id INT PRIMARY KEY,     
    employee_name VARCHAR(100),     
    salary INT 

Insert some values:

INSERT INTO employees (employee_id, employee_name, salary) 
(1, 'John Doe', 50000), (2, 'Jane Smith', NULL), (3, 'Michael Johnson', 60000), (4, 'Emily Brown', NULL);
What is nvl in SQL?

For example, let's say you have a table named "employees" with a column called "salary," and some employees have null salaries. You want to display the salary of each employee and set a default value of 0 for those with null salaries. You can use NVL like this:

SELECT employee_name, NVL(salary, 0) as adjusted_salary
FROM employees;

This query will display the employee names and their respective salaries, replacing null salaries with 0 using the NVL function.

What is nvl in SQL?

How do Null Values differ from Empty Strings and Zero Values?

Empty Strings: It represents the presence of a value, but it is empty or contains no characters

Zero Value: It represents a specific numeric value that is equivalent to "0".

Below is the difference between null value, empty string, and zero value:


Null Value

Empty String

Zero Value

Data Type

Can apply to any data type (numeric, string, date, etc.)

Typically applies to string data types (VARCHAR, CHAR, etc.)

Typically applies to numeric data types (INT, FLOAT, etc.)


Null values are not comparable to any other value, including other nulls

Empty strings can be compared to other empty strings

Zero values can be compared to other zero values


Concatenating a null value with another value results in a null value

Concatenating an empty string with another value retains the other value

Concatenating a zero value with another value retains the other value


Performing arithmetic operations with a null value results in a null value

Performing arithmetic operations with an empty string results in an error

Performing arithmetic operations with a zero value behaves as expected

Database Index

Null values are generally included in database indexes

Empty strings may or may not be included in database indexes, depending on the database settings

Zero values are generally included in database indexes

Query Filters

Filtering by a null value requires using the IS NULL condition

Filtering by an empty string requires using the condition for an empty string

Filtering by a zero value requires using the equality condition for zero

Benefits of using NVL in SQL:

  1. Handling Null Values: The primary advantage of NVL is its ability to handle null values effectively. It allows you to replace nulls with a specified default value, ensuring that your query results are consistent and meaningful.

  2. Improved Data Presentation: NVL helps in presenting data in a more user-friendly manner. By replacing nulls with default values, the output becomes more readable and easier to interpret, especially in reports or user interfaces.

  3. Preventing Errors: NVL helps avoid errors that may occur when performing arithmetic operations or string manipulations with null values. By converting nulls to appropriate default values, you can ensure that calculations proceed smoothly without unexpected results.

  4. Simplified Query Logic: By using NVL, you simplify the logic of your SQL queries. Instead of having complex CASE statements or nested functions to handle nulls, NVL provides a concise and straightforward solution.

  5. Increased Query Performance: In some database systems, using NVL might lead to better query performance compared to other methods like COALESCE or IFNULL. This can be especially true if the database engine can optimize NVL usage efficiently.

Limitations of using NVL in SQL:

  1. Lack of Portability: The NVL function is not standardized across all database systems. Different database vendors might have their own equivalent functions (e.g., ISNULL in SQL Server, IFNULL in MySQL), which can create portability issues when switching databases.

  2. Limited to Single Replacement: NVL can only replace one value with a default value. If you need to handle multiple possible null values, you'll either have to nest NVL functions or use alternative methods like COALESCE or CASE statements.

  3. Type Compatibility: The NVL function requires the default value to be of the same data type as the column or expression being replaced. If the default value does not match the data type, it can lead to errors or implicit type conversions.

  4. Potential Data Integrity Issues: Replacing null values with default values might mask data quality problems or indicate data integrity issues. It is essential to understand the reasons for null values and address them appropriately rather than merely replacing them.

  5. Limited Support for Complex Expressions: NVL works best with simple column replacements, but it might become cumbersome for more complex expressions involving multiple columns or calculations.


Using NVL in SQL can be a valuable tool for handling null values and improving data presentation. However, it is crucial to be aware of its limitations and choose the appropriate null-handling method based on the specific requirements and database system being used.

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