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What is Memory Management in JavaScript? How to Improve Memory Management of your Application

Memory management in low-level languages like C involves manual control over memory allocation and deallocation using functions like malloc() and free(). On the other hand, memory management in JavaScript handles memory allocation automatically. When objects are created, JavaScript allocates memory for them, and it frees that memory when the objects are no longer in use, thanks to its garbage collection mechanism. This automatic memory management can lead to confusion as it may give developers the impression that they don't need to worry about memory management.

In general, the memory life cycle in most programming languages follows these steps:

  1. Allocate Memory: The memory is allocated, either explicitly (in some languages) or implicitly (like in JavaScript).

  2. Use Memory: Read from and write to the allocated memory space to store and retrieve data.

  3. Release Memory: Once the memory is no longer needed, it is released to free up resources.

memory management in javascript

This process ensures efficient memory usage and prevents memory leaks. While low-level languages require explicit memory management, higher-level languages like JavaScript handle memory management automatically, making it easier for developers.

Improve the Memory Management in JavaScript Application

1. Global Variables

Avoid introducing global variables whenever possible, as they are not collected by the garbage collector. They can lead to memory leaks and conflicts with other global methods. For example:

function foo(arg) {
  bar = "this is a hidden global variable";

In the given example, the function foo assigns a value to the variable bar without declaring it with var, let, or const. This causes bar to become a global variable, leaking memory. Global variables can lead to conflicts with other global methods and cause memory-related issues.

2. Reference forever

Be careful with object and data-binding, as they can prevent garbage collection. Manually delete the references when they are no longer needed. For example:

function run() {
  var domObjects = $(".myClass"); {
    domObjects = null; // Manually delete the reference

In the provided code snippet, the variable domObjects is assigned a jQuery object representing elements with a specific class. A click event listener is then attached to these elements. However, since the domObjects reference is retained within the event listener, the allocated memory for domObjects cannot be garbage-collected even after the function run finishes execution. To address this, you can manually delete the reference by setting domObjects to null when it's no longer needed.

3. String Concatenation

Avoid string concatenation, as it consumes extra memory. Use template literals instead. For example:

const name = "John";
const message = `Hello, ${name}!`; // Use template literal

The example suggests using template literals instead, which offer a more concise and efficient way to concatenate strings. Template literals use backticks () and allow variables or expressions to be embedded directly within the string using ${}`

4. Avoid new objects

Creating new objects, arrays, or other complex data structures can allocate additional memory. The recommendation is to minimize their creation when possible, especially in performance-critical sections of your code. For example, in jQuery:

// Instead of using jQuery chaining methods

The example demonstrates avoiding the use of jQuery chaining methods, which can create new jQuery objects and potentially increase memory usage.

6. JSON Parse

When rendering data based on JSON during page load, it's recommended to use the built-in JSON.stringify and JSON.parse functions. JSON.stringify converts a JavaScript object into a JSON string, while JSON.parse converts a JSON string back into a JavaScript object. For example:

const jsonData = '{"name": "John", "age": 30}';
const obj = JSON.parse(jsonData);

This approach ensures efficient processing and eliminates the need for manual parsing or string manipulation.

7. Avoid try-catch

Although try-catch blocks are essential for handling exceptions, they come with a memory cost. The suggestion is to analyze your code and consider alternative approaches where try-catch can be minimized. However, it's important to balance error-handling needs with memory management concerns.

8. New window

When working with new browser windows or tabs, it's crucial to unset the reference variable after the window is detached or closed. This allows the garbage collector to free up the associated memory. For example:

const newWindow ="");
// After closing the window
newWindow = null; // Unset the reference

The above code snippet demonstrates setting the reference variable newWindow to null after closing the window.

9. Callbacks

High-frequency callbacks, such as scroll events, can impact the performance of your application. To mitigate this, techniques like debouncing or throttling can be employed. These methods limit the frequency at which the callback function is invoked, reducing the strain on system resources.

Remember to monitor the memory usage using performance APIs. For example, to check the used JSHeap memory, use:


By applying these memory management practices, you can enhance the efficiency and performance of your JavaScript applications while minimizing memory leaks and excessive memory consumption.

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