top of page

How to Center Text in CSS?

Updated: Feb 14, 2023

Centering text in CSS is a common requirement for web designers and developers. There are different techniques for centering text both horizontally and vertically, depending on the desired effect and the HTML structure. In this article, we will explore the various ways to center text in CSS and provide a comprehensive guide on how to achieve different types of text centering.


There are several ways to center text in CSS, including:

  1. text-align property: The text-align property is used to center text horizontally. This property can be applied to a containing element, such as a div, and accepts values of left, right, center, and justify.

  2. line-height property: The line-height property can be used to center text vertically by setting its value to the height of the containing element.

  3. display: flex property: The display: flex property can be used to center text both horizontally and vertically. The align-items and justify-content properties can be set to center to achieve this.

  4. display: table-cell property: The display: table-cell property can be used in combination with the vertical-align property to center text vertically.

  5. Absolute positioning: Absolute positioning can be used to center text both horizontally and vertically. The top and left properties can be set to 50% and the transform property can be used to translate the text to the center of the containing element.

Each of these methods has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the appropriate method depends on the specific use case. It is important to consider the accessibility and cross-browser compatibility of each method before choosing one to implement.


Horizontal text centering

The most straightforward way to center text horizontally is by using the text-align property. The text-align property takes values such as center, left, right, and justify and determines the horizontal alignment of text within an element. To center text horizontally, we simply need to set the text-align property of an element to center:

p {
  text-align: center;
}

This CSS rule sets the text alignment of all <p> elements to be centered horizontally. The text-align property can also be applied to specific classes, making it possible to center text only within specific elements. Here's an example:

.center-text {
  text-align: center;
}

We can then apply this class to a specific <p> element:

<p class="center-text">This text is centered horizontally.</p>

It is important to note that the text-align property applies only to block-level elements such as <div>, <p>, or <h1>. If you want to center text within an inline element such as <span>, you need to use different techniques, such as setting the element to be display: inline-block and giving it a specific width:

.center-text {
  display: inline-block;
  width: 100%;
  text-align: center;
}

In this example, the <span> element will be centered horizontally within its parent element because it has a width of 100% and is set to display: inline-block.


Full code:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<style>

h2 {
  text-align: center;
}
.center-text {
  display: inline-block;
  width: 100%;
  text-align: center;
}
</style>
<body>
<h2 class="center-text">This text is centered horizontally.</h2>

</body>
</html>

Output:


Vertical text centering

Centering text vertically in CSS can be a bit trickier than horizontal centering, but there are several ways to achieve this effect. The most flexible and widely supported method is by using the display: flex property.

The display: flex property makes an element a flex container, which allows its child elements to be aligned both vertically and horizontally using the align-items and justify-content properties.


Here's an example of how to center text vertically using display: flex:

.center {
  height: 200px; /* adjust as needed */display: flex;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
}

This CSS rule defines a class called .center that centers its child elements vertically within a block of height 200px. The align-items: center declaration centers the child elements vertically within the container, while the justify-content: center declaration centers the child elements horizontally within the container.


We can then apply this class to any element that we want to center vertically, such as a <div> or a <p> element:

<div class="center"><p>This text is centered vertically and horizontally.</p></div>

Another method for vertical centering is by using the line-height property. The line-height property sets the height of a line of text and can be used to center text vertically within an element. The value of the line-height property can be a fixed value in pixels, a percentage of the font size, or a unitless value, which is based on the font size of the text.


Here's an example of how to use the line-height property to center text vertically:

.center {
  height: 200px; /* adjust as needed */line-height: 200px; /* adjust as needed */text-align: center;
}

In this example, the line-height property is set to 200px, which is the same as the height of the container element. This ensures that the text will be vertically centered within the container. The text-align: center declaration centers the text horizontally within the container.


Full code:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<style>

h2 {
  text-align: center;
}
.center {
  height: 200px; /* adjust as needed */
  display: flex;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
}
</style>
<body>
<div class="center"><p>This text is centered vertically and horizontally.</p></div>
</body>
</html>

Output:


There is also a technique for vertically centering text using absolute positioning and transforms, but this method is less flexible and not as widely supported as the methods described above.


Conclusion

There are several ways to center text in CSS, depending on the desired effect and the HTML structure. The most flexible and widely supported method is by using the display: flex property, while the line-height property can also be used for simple cases. Whichever method you choose, be sure to test it thoroughly in different browsers and devices to ensure that your text is centered correctly.

0 comments

Comments


bottom of page