In database management system, When we want to retrieve a particular data, It becomes very inefficient to search all the index values and reach the desired data. In this situation, Hashing technique comes into picture.

Hashing is an efficient technique to directly search the location of desired data on the disk without using index structure. Data is stored at the data blocks whose address is generated by using hash function. The memory location where these records are stored is called as data block or data bucket.

Hash File Organization :

  • Data bucket – Data buckets are the memory locations where the records are stored. These buckets are also considered as Unit Of Storage.

  • Hash Function – Hash function is a mapping function that maps all the set of search keys to actual record address. Generally, hash function uses primary key to generate the hash index – address of the data block. Hash function can be simple mathematical function to any complex mathematical function.

  • Hash Index-The prefix of an entire hash value is taken as a hash index. Every hash index has a depth value to signify how many bits are used for computing a hash function. These bits can address 2n buckets. When all these bits are consumed ? then the depth value is increased linearly and twice the buckets are allocated.

Below given diagram clearly depicts how hash function work:

Hashing is further divided into two sub categories :

Static Hashing –