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What is the Difference between C# and Java?

Updated: Jan 19, 2023

This article will give you the brief difference and similarities between Java and C# programming language.

Java Programming Languages

Java was released by Sun Microsystem in 1995. It was developed by James Gosling. It is a general-purpose programming language that was designed with the specific goal of allowing developers to write once and run anywhere. Java application is compiled into bytecode that can run on any implementation of the Java Virtual Machine or JVM.

Advantages of Java

  1. Platform independence, meaning that Java code can run on a variety of different systems without modification.

  2. Object-oriented programming capabilities, which allow for more organized and reusable code.

  3. Large and active community, providing a wealth of resources and support.

  4. Extensive class libraries, making it easy to perform common tasks.

Disadvantages of Java

  1. Slower performance compared to natively compiled languages such as C or C++.

  2. Higher memory consumption compared to other languages like C or C++.

  3. Limited low-level access to system resources.

  4. Limited in mobile development as it is not used as often as other languages like Swift or Kotlin for iOS and Android development.

C# Programming Languages

C# is an object-oriented programming language, developed by Microsoft that runs on .Net Framework. The name "C sharp" was inspired by musical notations. Here '#' symbol indicates that the written note must be made a semitone which is higher in pitch.

Advantages of C#

  1. Object-oriented programming capabilities, make it easy to create modular and reusable code.

  2. Strong support for Windows development, as C# is a Microsoft-developed language.

  3. Garbage collection helps to reduce memory leaks and other issues associated with manual memory management.

  4. A large and active community, providing a wealth of resources and support.

  5. C# is widely used for developing desktop, mobile, and web applications.

Disadvantages of C#

  1. Requires a runtime or virtual machine to run, which can increase startup time and memory usage.

  2. Less flexibility compared to other languages like C++.

  3. Limited support for low-level operations, makes it less suitable for some types of systems programming.

  4. Limited cross-platform support, as C# is primarily used in Windows development.

  5. May have a steeper learning curve compared to some other languages, especially for programmers with no prior experience with object-oriented programming.


Here are some similarities between C# and Java:

  • Object-oriented: Both C# and Java are object-oriented programming languages, meaning they use concepts such as classes, objects, inheritance, and polymorphism to organize and structure code.

  • Strong type system: Both languages have a strong type system, which helps to catch errors at compile-time and improve code readability.

  • Garbage collection: Both C# and Java use garbage collection to manage memory, which helps to reduce memory leaks and other issues associated with manual memory management.

  • Large and active community: Both C# and Java have large and active communities, providing a wealth of resources and support for developers.

  • Cross-platform development: Both Java and C# can be used for developing cross-platform applications, although Java has better support for different platforms.

  • Syntax and structure: Both languages have similar syntax and structure, which makes it relatively easy for developers to learn one language after having experience with the other.

  • They are both widely used in the industry for developing various types of applications.

The Difference:



Java is designed to run on Java platform with the help of Java Runtime Environment (JRE)

C# is designed to run on Common Language Runtime (CLR)

Designed by Sun Microsystems.

Designed as part of Microsoft's .NET initiative.

It is implemented using erasures and casts added upon compilation into bytecode.

Integrated into the CLI and allows type information to be available at runtime

It requires the use of an interface to achieve similar functionality

It has delegates who serve as methods that be called without knowledge of an object

It has only one type of exception

It has two types of exceptions: Checked and unchecked exception

Java code is compiled to an intermediate bytecode that runs on a virtual machine.

C# is generally faster than Java, due to the fact that C# code is compiled to native machine code,

Java is also less suitable for low-level programming but it is still better than C#.

C# has less flexibility and less support for low-level operations than C++ making it less suitable for some types of systems programming.

Java is more widely used in mobile development, particularly for developing Android apps

C# has less usage in mobile development, although it can be used to develop Windows phone apps.

Java has better cross-platform support, as it can be used on Windows, Mac, and Linux,

C# is primarily used in Windows development.

It does not support pointers

It supports pointers only in unsafe mode

Java requires JDK to run Java

.Net framework provides a vast library of codes used by C#

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