SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
The SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) mainly serve the purpose of framing the IP packets along the serial lines mostly in a dial-up connection where the line transmission rate could be in the range of 1200 bps and 19.2 Kbps. However, there is no provision of for addressing, packet type identification, compression or error detection/correction mechanisms but it is easily implemented.
Characteristics and deficiencies of SLIP protocol:
Both the computers(sender and receiver) must know each other's IP address in order to communicate. SLIP does not support DHCP which is used to assign dynamic IP. Hence it is not appropriate to be used by most of the ISPs of providing dial-up internet services.
It does not have type field and hence there is no way to specify protocol type. Hence SLIP can not be used for multiple protocol functionalities. This is take care by PPP. Also SLIP can not multiplex and demultiplex other protocol systems along with TCPIP, the same is supported by PPP.
SLIP does not take care of error correction, this need to be done by upper layers.
SLIP does not support header compression and hence is not ideal for slow speed internet connection.
The advantages of this system are:
No need for subsidiary books;
Helps in keeping customers account up-to-date;
It reduces the possibility of errors and frauds;
It saves a lot of time since it is prepared by the customers themselves;
It helps in auditing;
Proper evidence for future when needed;
Provide reliability in accounts as slips are filled by customers themselves;
It provides a good system of internal check etc.
The system is also not free from problems. Following are some shortcomings of slip system:
It suffers from the risk of loss of slips;
Misappropriation or destruction of slips since they are loose;
Where customers are in large in a bank, it is difficult and expensive to keep record date-wise;
Difficult to fill by the uneducated customers.
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
PPP (Point-to-Point) protocol render a standard method for the transfer of the multiprotocol datagrams (packets) along a point-to-point link. The main elements of PPP are – a mechanism for encapsulating multi-protocol datagrams, LCP (Link Control Protocol) and a group of NCP (Network Control Protocols). LCP mainly sets up, configure and test the connections while NCP is responsible for establishing and configuring the distinct network layer protocols.
PPP is divided into 3 basic functionalities as outlined below.
Method of encapsulation of multiprotocol datagrams.
LCP(Link Control Protocol) used by PPP to establish,manage and to terminate the dial up connections.
NCPs(Network Control Protocols) to support upper layer protocols.
PPP frame consists of protocol field,followed by data and then padding. The data part carry control packet or upper layer datagrams. protocol field is 1 or 2 bytes long and identifies protocol type of the enclosed packet. Possible types can be LCP packet,NCP packet,IP packet or OSI network layer protocol packet.
Ensure the necessary investments into public sector and more effective public resources management;
Ensure higher quality and timely provision of public services;
Mostly investment projects are implemented in due terms and do not impose unforeseen public sectors extra expenditures;
A private entity is granted the opportunity to obtain a long-term remuneration;
Private sector expertise and experience are utilized in PPP projects implementation;
Appropriate PPP project risks allocation enables to reduce the risk management expenditures;
In many cases assets designed under PPP agreements could be classified off the public sector balance sheet.
Infrastructure or services delivered could be more expensive;
PPP project public sector payments obligations postponed for the later periods can negatively reflect future public sector fiscal indicators;
PPP service procurement procedure is longer and more costly in comparison with traditional public procurement;
PPP project agreements are long-term, complicated and comparatively inflexible because of impossibility to envisage and evaluate all particular events that could influence the future activity.
Difference Between SLIP and PPP
SLIP is an outdated protocol, though it is still used in some places. It is good for just bridging the gap between the IP at layer 3 and serial link at layer 1.
PPP is the newer protocol used for the same purpose as the SLIP but offer several new features.
SLIP encapsulates IP packets
PPP encapsulates datagram.
IP protocol is the only protocol supported by SLIP.
PPP provides support for the other layer three protocols also.
SLIP does not have these features.
PPP offers authentication, error detection, error correction, compression, encryption
In SLIP the IP addresses are statically allocated.
PPP performs the dynamic assignment.
Data can be transferred in synchronous mode in SLIP
PPP facilitates synchronous and asynchronous modes for data transfer.
AMQP (Advanced Messaging Queuing Protocol) vs MQTT(Messaging Queuing Telemetry Transport)
ARP(Address Resolution Protocol) vs RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)
NAT (Network Address Translation) vs PAT(Port Address Translation)
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